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If Samarkand is known as a "Pearl of the East", Fergana is famous as a "Pearl of Uzbekistan". 

Famous for its beautiful landscapes and ancient history, Fergana located in eastern Uzbekistan, on the southern edge of the Fergana Valley. Fergana is about 420 km east of Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, and about 75 km west of Andijan. 

Ferghana City is the administrative centre of Ferghana region. Its territory is 70 square km and the population is 230,000 people. 

The Fergana region is located in the southern part of the Fergana Valley, bounded by Tyan-Shan mountains along the Syrdarya river, the main water supplier of the region. Covering 6,800 (1,6% of Uzbekistan's territory), Fergana region borders Kyrgyzstan to the east, Tajikistan to the south, and the Andijan and Namangan regions to the west. The region has an ethnically diverse population of 1,5 million, 10% of Uzbekistan's population. 

Fergana has been the center of oil production in the Fergana Valley since the region's first oil refinery was built near the city in 1908. Since then, more refineries have been added, and Fergana is one of the most important centers of oil production and refining in Uzbekistan. Natural gas from western Uzbekistan is transported by pipeline to the valley, where it is used to produce fertilizer. 

Thus, the Fergana region is one of the leader in the republic on oil extraction and processing, power generation, production of fertilizers, chemical fiber, marble, machine-building, construction materials limestone, gravel, sand sulfur, ozekerit, cotton-ginning, silk-spinning and also production of grain, fruits, vegetables and many other agricultural products. 

The Fergana Valley was the most important irrigated cotton growing region of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Cotton growing and processing has been the dominant economic activity here for centuries, supplied by water from small streams flowing from the surrounding mountains.
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